# Downlink and Uplink User Association in Dense Next-Generation Wireless Networks

## Garg, Nikhil

5G, the next-generation cellular network, must serve an aggregate data rate of
1000 times that of current 4G networks while reducing data latency by a factor of ten. To meet these requirements, 5G networks will be far denser than existing networks, and small cells (femtocells and picocells) will augment network capacity. However, dense networks raise questions regarding interference, user association, and handoff between base stations. Where recent papers have demonstrated that interference from small cells will not be prohibitive under multi-slope path loss models, this thesis describes how the use of different path loss models affects the design of such dense, multi-tier networks. This thesis concludes that the gains realized by downlink biasing and uplink/downlink decoupling are strongly dependent on the path loss model assumed and the density differential between base station tiers. Furthermore, this thesis argues that the gains from uplink/downlink decoupling are reduced by a factor of 50% when optimal biasing for the downlink is used.